Sebastian I Arriola Apelo

Arriola Apelo Lab

Assistant Professor - Metabolism

Research, Teaching



Office Location

1675 Observatory Dr
1052 Animal Science Building
Madison, WI 53706

A.E.: Universidad de la República, Uruguay, 2003
M.S.: Virginia Tech, 2009
Ph.D.: Virginia Tech, 2013
Postdoc: Virginia Tech, 2014
               University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2017 

Our research group focuses on understanding nutrient metabolism with the overall objective of maximizing nutrient efficiency for milk production. We are interested in nutritional and endocrine regulation of mammary epithelial cell signaling, with special interest on the Akt and mTORC1 signaling networks, and the effect of signaling networks on cellular metabolism and milk components synthesis. We aim to understand the regulation of mammary blood flow, nutrient uptake and milk components synthesis as a means to maximizing nutrient demand by the mammary glands. We are also interested in nutritional and endocrine regulation of hepatic metabolism of energy and amino acids. For our research, we use a multidimensional research approach with in vitro, in vivo, and mechanistic mathematical models to understand and predict metabolic and production responses. 

If interested in our research, please contact me at I am a member of:   

-Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences 

-Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences 

-Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology Graduate Program 

Selected Peer-Reviewed Articles

The market for amino acids: understanding supply and demand of substrate for more efficient milk protein synthesis. Pszczolkowski VL, Arriola Apelo SI. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2020 Nov 12;11(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s40104-020-00514-6.

Insulin potentiates essential amino acids effects on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling in MAC-T cells. Pszczolkowski VL, Zhang J, Pignato KA, Meyer EJ, Kurth MM, Lin A, Arriola Apelo SI. J Dairy Sci. 2020 Dec;103(12):11988-12002. doi: 10.3168/jds.2020-18920. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Pszczolkowski, V.L., Halderson, S.J., Meyer, M.J., Lin, A., Arriola Apelo, S.I. Pharmacologic inhibition of mTORC1 mimics dietary protein restriction in a mouse model of lactation. J Anim. Sci. Biotechno. 2020 doi: 10.1186/s40104-020-00470-1.

Danes MAC, Hanigan MD,  Arriola Apelo SI, Dias JDL, Wattiaux MA, Broderick GA. Post-ruminal supplies of glucose and casein, but not acetate, stimulate milk protein synthesis in dairy cows through differential effects on mammary metabolism. J Dairy Sci. 2020doi: 10.3168/jds.2019-18086.

Munsterman AS,  Arriola Apelo SI, Nelson KM. Transposition of the common carotid artery in standing cattle. Vet Surg. 2020 May;49(4):668-675. doi: 10.1111/vsu.13378.

Ovariectomy uncouples lifespan from metabolic health and reveals a sex-hormone-dependent role of hepatic mTORC2 in aging. Arriola Apelo SI, Lin A, Brinkman JA, Meyer E, Morrison M, Tomasiewicz JL, Pumper CP, Baar EL, Richardson NE, Alotaibi M, Lamming DW. Elife. 2020 Jul 28;9:e56177. doi: 10.7554/eLife.56177.

Schreiber KH,  Arriola Apelo SI, Yu D, Brinkman JA, Velarde MC, Syed FA, Liao CY, Baar EL, Carbajal KA, Sherman DS, Ortiz D, Brunauer R, Yang SE, Tzannis ST, Kennedy BK, Lamming DW. A novel rapamycin analog is highly selective for mTORC1 in vivo. Nat Commun. 2019 Jul 19;10(1):3194. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-11174-0.

Castro JJ,  Arriola Apelo SI, Appuhamy JADRN, Hanigan MD. Development of a model describing regulation of casein synthesis by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in response to insulin, amino acids, and acetate. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Aug;99(8):6714-6736. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10591.

Arriola Apelo SI, Lamming DW. Rapamycin: An InhibiTOR of Aging Emerges From the Soil of Easter Island. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Jul;71(7):841-9. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glw090.

Arriola Apelo SI, Pumper CP, Baar EL, Cummings NE, Lamming DW. Intermittent Administration of Rapamycin Extends the Life Span of Female C57BL/6J Mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Jul;71(7):876-81. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glw064.

Arriola Apelo SI, Neuman JC, Baar EL, Syed FA, Cummings NE, Brar HK, Pumper CP, Kimple ME, Lamming DW. Alternative rapamycin treatment regimens mitigate the impact of rapamycin on glucose homeostasis and the immune system. Aging Cell. 2016 Feb;15(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/acel.12405.

Arriola Apelo SI, Bell AL, Estes K, Ropelewski J, de Veth MJ, Hanigan MD. Effects of reduced dietary protein and supplemental rumen-protected essential amino acids on the nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Sep;97(9):5688-99. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7833.

Arriola Apelo SI, Knapp JR, Hanigan MD. Invited review: Current representation and future trends of predicting amino acid utilization in the lactating dairy cow. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Jul;97(7):4000-17. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7392.

Arriola Apelo SI, Singer LM, Ray WK, Helm RF, Lin XY, McGilliard ML, St-Pierre NR, Hanigan MD. Casein synthesis is independently and additively related to individual essential amino acid supply. J Dairy Sci. 2014 May;97(5):2998-3005. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7422.

Arriola Apelo SI, Singer LM, Lin XY, McGilliard ML, St-Pierre NR, Hanigan MD. Isoleucine, leucine, methionine, and threonine effects on mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in mammary tissue. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Feb;97(2):1047-56. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7348.

Selected Research Posters

Sebastian I. Arriola Apelo, Steven J. Halderson, Spencer A. E. Moore, Kenneth F. Kalscheur. Canola meal improves methionine status in transition cows. ADSA Annual Meeting. July 2021. Virtual Conference.

Virginia L. Pszczolkowski, Haowen Hu, Jun Zhang, Meghan K. Connelly, Amelia S. Munsterman, Sebastian I. Arriola Apelo. Effects of AA and hyperinsulinemic clamp on plasma concentrations and mammary extraction of energy substrates. Annual Meeting. July 2021. Virtual Conference.

M. Z. Toledo, Y. Agarwal, C. Nienow, D. Luchini, S. I. Arriola Apelo, M. C. Wiltbank; Evaluation of an underivatized compared with a derivatized method to quantify bovine plasma amino acids liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry. ADSA Annual Meeting. June 2020. Virtual Conference.

V. L. Pszczolkowski, H. Hu, J. Zhang, M. K. Connelly, A. S. Munsterman, and S.I. Arriola Apelo. An 8-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is insufficient to alter milk production in lactating dairy cows. ADSA Annual Meeting. June 2020. Virtual Conference.

V. L. Pszczolkowski, H. Hu, B. D. Brown, S. J. Halderson, J. Zhang, A. S. Munsterman, and S. I. Arriola Apelo. Energy source conditions the milk response to TOR amino acids in dairy cows. ADSA Annual Meeting. June 2020. Virtual Conference.

Undergraduate Courses

An Sci/Dy Sci 414 – Ruminant Nutrition & Metabolism (3 credits, Fall)
Course description: Ruminant Nutrition integrates nutritional and biochemical concepts to understand digestive and metabolic processes in dairy and beef cattle, which are then quantitatively represented to predict and manipulate production and health outcomes.
Requirements: NUTR SCI/​AN SCI/​DY SCI  311 and (BIOCHEM 301 or 501)

Graduate Courses

Dy Sci 875 – Advanced Topics in Physiology (Spring, Odd Years)
Course description: In Advanced Topics in Physiology we analyze how specific systems of the mammalian body communicate to maintain homeostasis, particularly during demanding biological stages (e.g. lactation) or environmental changes (e.g. seasons).
Requirements: Graduate/professional standing

An Sci/Dy Sci 824 – Ruminant Nutrition Physiology 1 (4 credits, Fall)
Course description: Focuses on rumen microbiology, metabolite modeling, as well as protein and VFA nutrition and metabolism. Students should have undergraduate coursework in ruminant nutrition, biochemistry, and microbiology as background.
Requirements: Graduate/professional standing

Undergraduate Curriculum Committee

Faculty Senate